In January 2017, Casas announced that he was reclassifying as a member of the draft class of 2018.
Triston, who played for American Heritage High and was the lone sophomore on USA Baseball’s 18U national team, which won another gold medal in the fall in Mexico. At 6-foot-3, 241 pounds, Casas was the biggest position player on the team and its primary power hitter, hitting two homers out of the seven hit in the event (six by Team USA).
After he returned from Mexico, Casas said, his father approached him with the idea of reclassifying. Now being home-schooled while playing for American Heritage, Casas and his tutor began an accelerated course load in January.
“It definitely will be a challenge academically,” the Miami commit said. “I had made the decision in October, but I wanted to finish the semester and make sure to get my credits. In the new year, that’s when I became homeschooling 10th grade. Between taking classes, finishing 11th grade by August and my summer schedule, I barely will have time to do anything.” (John Manuel - Baseball America - Jan 2017)
The first time Casas popped onto Steve Bernhardt’s radar, the Florida high school first baseman was being talked about as not only one of the best 15-year-old hitters in the country—but one of the best in the world at that age.
“The first time I heard about him, I was talking to a scout who had seen him play for the 15U national team,” said Bernhardt, the executive vice president at Baseball Factory and chairman of the Under Armour All-America Game selection committee. “I talked to an international scout who had been at the event, and he said of the pool he saw there, he would call Triston the best 15-year-old hitter in the world . . . because he was the best guy in the tournament.”
World Baseball Softball Confederation Player of the Year for 2017.
Just eight U.S. players have earned the award, and Casas is the first since Zack Collins in 2011. Notably, both Casas and Collins are products of American Heritage High in Plantation, Fla.
For Casas, the honor comes after two impressive seasons with USA Baseball’s 18U National Team. In 2016, he hit .333 with a team-high two home runs and 11 RBIs as Team USA won gold in the COPABE Pan Am Championships. Last summer, Casas again led the 18U team in home runs (three) and RBIs (13) while claiming MVP honors for the tournament, which the Americans once again won. (Carlos Collazo - Baseball America - 6/01/2018)
Casas is not just a professional on the field. He takes every part of his game and his life seriously. He puts in the offseason work in the gym to keep his large frame in shape. He eats well. He maintains good grades in school.
“The word that I use to describe him is ‘meticulous,’” Director of USA Baseball's 18U National team Matt Blood said. “He works on every part of his game very hard. He’s got desire to learn and aptitude—the ability to listen and put things into play, into his practice. And he wants to be really good at every part of his game. He wants to be a well-rounded player.”
The best example of that desire to improve might come from his time watching Nick Pratto get most of the reps at first base for Team USA in 2016. While Casas started every game at DH thanks to his bat, he understood that Pratto’s exceptional defensive ability at first—which factored into him being drafted 14th overall by the Royals in 2017—was at another level. A level that Casas wanted to get to.
“From what I’ve seen he’s not a real vocal leader,” Steve Bernhardt the executive vice president at Baseball Factory and chairman of the Under Armour All-America Game selection committee said. “But he’s such a nice person and a hard worker and such a talented player, the other players look to him to see how he’s acting and kind of take a lead from him.”
At the 2018 National High School Invitational, Bernhardt ran into Casas and said “hello” before a child ran up to Casas with a baseball card he wanted signed. Casas took the card, signed his autograph, talked with the kid and asked him some questions as only a professional would.
“Just like we say he has a mature approach at the plate he’s just a mature young man,“ Bernhardt said. “And he gets it. He cares about other people, and it’s not all about himself.” (Carlos Collazo - Baseball America - 6/01/2018)
June 2018: The Red Sox chose Casas in the first round (#26 overall), out of American Heritage High School in Plantation, Florida. He signed for $2,552,800, via scout Willie Romay.
June 23, 2018: Triston Casas' first steps onto the field at Fenway Park as a member of the Boston Red Sox organization fell in stride behind J.D. Martinez, though he was far from being overshadowed by the slugger.
Drafted by the Red Sox, the 18-year-old proved wise beyond his years by taking full advantage of his access to one of the Major League's best home run hitters this season.
"He's not a bad guy to pick a brain about hitting and stuff," Casas said of talking with Martinez. "I was just talking to him about little things, what he thinks about and stuff, and just the way he approaches the game. He's performing at the highest level right now and he's a pretty good player at this level, so I was just trying to pick anything that I could. Any doubts that I had, I was just asking him about it."
After settling the early nerves of hitting under a highly attentive crowd of onlookers, the 6-foot-4 left-handed hitter proved he too can provide some pop down the line for the big club, as he deposited two balls into the Red Sox bullpen in right and one off the wall in center field. A product of American Heritage School in Plantation, Fla., Casas relished the experience and looks forward to more down the line.
"It's pretty amazing. The history here at this park and to imagine how many great players came through this dugout, and the other one, and stepped onto that field, is pretty amazing to think about," said Casas. "It was pretty fun. It's definitely [an experience] that I'll never forget. It makes me hungry to get back here."
Initially committed to play at the University of Miami, the third baseman opted to begin his professional career and signed with Boston on June 14. Assigned to the Rookie-level Gulf Coast Red Sox in Fort Myers, Fla., he made his debut as the team's designated hitter, going 0-for-3 with two strikeouts. With the ability to play home games at JetBlue Park, Casas has been afforded the opportunity to test his swing against similar dimensions to what he saw in Boston.
"I like that it works with my swing," said Casas of Fenway. "My swing is one that's pretty uppercut towards left-center. Hopefully down in JetBlue, and eventually, hopefully here, I can work that wall pretty well. I like the way it fits my swing. "It's truly amazing. ... I see myself growing well here and prospering as a baseball player and as a person." (C Forde - MLB.com - June 23, 2018)
In 2019, the Baseball America Prospect Handbook rated Casas as the 5th-best prospect in the Red Sox organization. He moved up to #1 in the winter before 2020 spring camps opened.
Triston was the Red Sox #1 prospect again in 2021. And he was #2 in 2022 and 2023.
2019: Casas finished his first full season with 20 home runs and 81 RBIs in 120 games, joining Xander Bogaerts as the only Red Sox teenager in the last 50 years to hit at least 20 homers in one year at any level.
Sept. 19, 2019: Casas has an approach so sound that it propelled him to being voted the Hitting Prospect of the Year for the Red Sox by MLB Pipeline.
Evaluators rave about his makeup, describing Casas as unusually mature in his routines, work ethic, and preparation. He is a student of the game. Scouts see similarities to Freddie Freeman in his all-around game.
Triston participated in the Fall Instructional League in 2018, 2019, and 2020, but did not play in games in 2020. Received a non-roster invitation to spring training in 2021.
2021 Season: Boston Red Sox No. 2 prospect Triston Casas is having a year for the ages.
The hulking first baseman started the 2021 minor league season off with the Double-A Portland Sea Dogs, but after crushing 12 home runs and batting .284 across 77 games, he earned his first promotion to the Triple-A Worcester Red Sox. There, he belted another three long balls in nine games.
If a promotion to Triple-A was all Casas had done during the year, that would be a pretty successful year. But he didn’t stop there. The 21-year-old traveled to Tokyo to compete with Team USA and earned a silver medal at the Olympics led Team USA with three home runs and eight RBIs in Tokyo, earning raves from manager Mike Scioscia and other Team USA veterans.
2021 AFL — .495 OBP.
How’s this for a 2021? The 21-year-old first baseman saw time with Double-A Portland and Triple-A Worcester as well as separate Team USA stints for Olympic qualifying and the Games themselves in Japan. He ended the year as the Fall League’s OBP leader, having reached base safely 48 times (29 hits, 17 walks, two hit-by-pitches) in 97 plate appearances. Casas’ power is still emerging in-game -- he only clubbed one homer for Scottsdale. (Sam Dykstra - Nov. 21, 2021)
MLB debut (Sept. 4, 2022): Many players dream that their first hit in the majors will be a home run or a dramatic hit in the clutch. Triston’s first hit was far from either.
In his third at-bat, Casas had a chance to extend the Red Sox’ lead to 6-2 with a base hit in the fifth inning because Trevor Story was at second base. Casas got the base knock, but it was dribbler toward short. Rangers second baseman Marcus Semien ran to make a play on the ball, stopping it from rolling into left field. However, by the time Semien got his hand on the ball, Casas was on his way to his first big league hit. (Conor Roche)
2022 Season: Casas profiles as an above-average hitter who peppers the ball across the entire field. After hitting .273/.382/.481 with 11 homers in Triple-A Worcester during the 2022 season, Casas made his major league debut. The 22-year-old showed promise in his limited at-bats, hitting .197/.358/.408 with five homers in 76 at-bats.
Despite his weak batting average, he demonstrated tremendous plate disciple, walking at a 20% clip (compared to the 8.2% league average) while striking out at a slightly elevated rate (24.2% compared to 22.4%). (Maury Ahram - Nov 13, 2022)
- 2023 Spring Training: The 2022 Red Sox had plenty of issues. Apparently one of them involved Triston Casas trying to catch some rays.
The Red Sox' young first baseman has developed a few quirky pregame rituals, from sunbathing shirtless in the outfield to taking naps at his locker in the clubhouse before first pitch. Casas said he developed those habits in 2019 while in Boston's minor-league system and didn't run into any problems.
But when he got to the majors last season and tried his sunbathing routine before his Red Sox debut in September, he received a very different reaction.
"Are you (expletive) kidding me?" one veteran pitcher remarked when he saw Casas sunbathing, according to Mass Live's Chris Cotillo.
That pitcher wasn't alone: Multiple Red Sox veterans "took issue" with Casas' unique pregame routine, with the 23-year-old admitting there were "clashes" over how he should conduct himself before games.
Casas put a positive spin on those interactions, insisting they were better than his teammates not saying anything if his pregame routine upset them.
"I would have been more concerned if they weren’t saying anything to me," Casas said. "I felt like that would have meant they didn’t feel like I was going to be (in the majors long). I think the fact they were telling me stuff, the fact they were getting on me for the little things meant that they wanted me to go about things the right way."
Then again, every baseball player has their own routine, and as long as Casas wasn't skipping any team meetings or workout sessions, why should his teammates care what he does before games if it works for him?
Casas said he won't completely alter his routine in 2023, but did admit he'll make a few changes to draw less attention to himself before games.
"I couldn’t just scratch everything and then try to build a new routine," Casas said. "So there were times where I had to compromise with my teammates and meet in the middle and see how I can incorporate things that I needed to do and things that they thought were disrespectful. '
"I had a certain way of doing things. And I found out when I came here some of the things that I was doing just needed an adjustment in terms of the timing or the location."
The Red Sox finished in the American League East basement last season at 78-84, so they had bigger fish to fry than worrying about why Casas was sunbathing before games. They've also lost several clubhouse leaders over the past calendar year—Xander Bogaerts, Christian Vazquez and J.D. Martinez, to name a few. So it's worth wondering whether they have the right clubhouse leadership in place to avoid such trivial issues becoming larger ones.
Casas is Boston's projected Opening Day first baseman as of now, so here's hoping he and his teammates have gotten on the same page about his sunbathing habits entering the 2023 season. (Darren Hartwell - Feb. 23, 2023)
|Birth City:||Miami, FL|
|Draft:||Red Sox #1 - 2018 - Out of high school (FL)|
Casas has the size and strength to launch moonshots from left-center to right field. He is a massive presence in the batter’s box at 6-foot-5, 245 pounds and possesses the plus-plus 65 or 70 grade raw power expected from someone of his stature. While he occasionally sells out for power early in counts, he prides himself on being a well-rounded hitter who chokes up, spreads out his stance, and uses the whole field with two strikes.
He earns his 55 grade hit tool and 65 grade power.
Triston is a formidable presence in the batter's box, with long levers that allow him to obliterate baseballs. Whereas in 2021 he focused foremost on contact and getting on base--often widening his stance and choking up significantly--in 2022, he hunted pitches to damage. He became more upright even with two strikes. While he maintained his characteristic plate discipline, he swung with bad intentions, showing significant jumps in exit velocities.
In his MLB debut, he hit .197/.358/.408 but showed a sophisticated ability to game-plan and control the zone (20% walk rate) with considerable opposite-field power. There's some platoon risk with Casas, though he had quality left-on-left at-bats in the big leagues. (Alex Speier - Baseball America Prospect Handbook - Spring, 2023)
While the first baseman had prioritized contact through his amateur career and first three years with the Red Sox, his size—a mountainous 6-foot-5—and strength, along with an ability to hit occasional moonshots long suggested the possibility of future middle-of-the-order production.
In 2022, Casas made adjustments intended to increase his frequency of damage even as he maintained his trademark plate discipline.
Casas took more chances in narrow areas of the zone in hitters’ counts, accepting more frequent swings and misses. With two strikes, rather than employing an extremely spread-out approach and focusing on contact, he remained more upright while looking to do damage.
Triston looks capable of at least above-average to plus on-base percentage and slugging numbers.
“Hitting the ball hard, no matter if it's with a negative launch angle or a really positive one doesn't really matter to me. As long as I'm hitting the right part of the ball, timing it up, squaring it up, I don't really care where it goes,” Casas said.
“Hitting the ball hard is the objective. People love home runs. People love contact. And I try to generate that as often as possible. I'm in the entertainment business.” (Alex Speier - Baseball America - March, 2023)
While Casas' combination of bat speed, strength and leverage in his massive 6-foot-4 frame give him plus-plus raw power to all parts of the park, he resists the temptation to sell out for power. He controls the strike zone extremely well, focuses on making hard contact to all fields with a sound if naturally long left-handed swing and shows the aptitude to make adjustments at the plate. He made progress last season with his ability to work counts and launch balls in the air to his pull side, and he could become a 35-40 homer threat if he continues to do so. (Spring 2022)
While Triston's hit-over-power approach has impressed, many evaluators believe he’ll ultimately focus more on driving the ball in the air, with middle-of-the-order power numbers to follow. Casas should be able to make that shift given his professorial understanding of his swing and still projects to be an above-average 55 grade hitter.
- Most evaluators love the versatile offensive approach of Casas, which includes a dramatic two-strike approach in which he spreads out his stance to eliminate movement in his lower half and chokes up considerably to be quick to the ball.
Yet, some are surprised that there haven’t been more displays of in-game power from a hitter who shows tape-measure raw power.
Still, Casas saw little reason for alarm.
“My whole career up to now I've always chased the on-base percentage as opposed to slugging percentage," Casas said, "because I feel like on-base puts you in a good process to make contact, grind out at-bats, swing at good pitches.
“To be a power hitter, you shouldn't have to try to hit home runs or try to make something happen . . . I know I'm plenty big enough. I'm plenty strong enough. I'm more than capable enough to tap into that power.
"It's just a matter of if I'm swinging at the right pitches and the right counts.” (Alex Speier - Baseball America - March, 2022)
Triston has some swing-and-miss to his game, like most big power hitters, but he’s shown the self-awareness and aptitude to cover holes. That trait was evident at the alternate site in 2020, where he showed an improved ability to turn on and backspin velocity on the inner half, while continuing to drive pitches away to the opposite field.
Casas has as much raw power as anyone from the 2018 Draft, launching balls to all fields with his combination of bat speed, strength and leverage in his still-growing 6-foot-5 frame. He's more than just a masher, however, as he's an advanced hitter for his age who controls the strike zone and uses the entire field rather than trying to yank everything out of the park. His size adds some length to his left-handed swing, but he provides plenty of hard contact and displays the ability to make adjustments. (Spring 2021)
Triston's all-fields approach is evidence of a player committed to being more than an all-or-nothing hitter. Casas, who considers Joey Votto a model, spreads out his stance and chokes up with two strikes. His strike-zone awareness ranks among the best in the system. (Alex Speier - BA Prospect Handbook - Spring 2021)
Triston is gigantic, with size and strength in his lefthanded swing to generate easy power from left-center field to right. However, he sometimes fights his frame. In an effort to limit strikeouts, he opened the year employing a spread-out stance with a pronounced crouch, but the effort backfired and instead created extra movement in his swing that resulted in a high April strikeout rate.
Casas' bat speed, strength and the leverage in his 6-foot-4 frame give him as much raw power as anyone in the 2018 Draft. He's more than just a slugger though, because he lets his pop come naturally and has more feel for hitting and more plate discipline than most players his age. Though his size adds obvious length to his left-handed stroke, he makes repeated hard contact to all fields. (Spring 2020)
But Casas showed aptitude and adaptability, employing a more natural, upright stance starting in May and with it showed not only standout power but also a versatile approach that suggested a solid overall hitting foundation that could help to control his strikeout rate. The lefthanded masher also chokes up with two strikes, and his willingness to use the whole field helps control his swings and misses. (Alex Speier - Baseball America - Nov., 2019)
Triston has some real leftthanded power -- we are talking 60 grade power on the 20-80 scouting scale. His carrying tool and calling card is his power and ability to hit, translating 60-grade raw power into consistent in-game power.
“Even as the youngest player on the National Team, Casas was one of the most mature hitters that we had,” USA Baseball 18U national team director Matt Blood said. “His approach and feel for the strike zone is very advanced and his well above average raw power is as playable as any 16-year-old prospect I have seen since Bryce Harper.”
His ability to stay inside the ball, cover holes and drive pitches to the opposite field suggests the potential for a strong hit tool that he can also develop.
Triston had employed a pronounced crouch in 2019 spring training and at the start of the season. The Red Sox encouraged the lefthanded hitter to stand more upright, putting him in a more athletic and comfortable position to get the bat to the ball and use his massive frame—he is listed at 6-foot-4, 238 pounds—to generate all-fields power. The adjustment unlocked a standout season.
Casas has the maturity to make adjustments against more seasoned competition.
"He’s a guy who wants to be good, works to be good, and also possesses power to all fields and the ability to shorten up and get a hit,” hitting coordinator Greg Norton said. "He is super advanced for a kid his age as far as his work ethic, his preparation thoughts, looking to see what guys are doing, and how he goes about his ABs.” (Alex Speier - Baseball America - Oct., 2019)
Triston has a middle-of-the-batting-order bat. He has a patient, selective approach at the plate, although he has shown some of the swing-and-miss tendencies that can coincide with long arms.
Casas is able to make adjustments and control the strike zone. He has an advanced approach and a great demeanor. He rarely gets caught on his front foot trying to ambush a ball or yank it down the right-field line. His strength allows him to drive the ball with authority to any part of the park, but in batting practice he frequently works on hitting low line drives into shallow left field.
Triston chokes up significantly on his bat, especially with two strikes, much like Joey Votto, and sacrifices a little leverage for better barrel control. He’s strong enough that it doesn’t significantly diminish his power.
The lefthanded slugger’s knowledge of the strike zone is advanced for a young hitter—he’ll be 21 in 2021—and so is his power to all fields.
Unlike many hitters in this strikeout-happy, launch-angle generation, you’ll notice that Triston shortens his stroke and even chokes up when he has two strikes. It turns out he has a hitter he loves to emulate in Joey Votto.
“Growing up, I loved watching Joey Votto. I love his approach. I love his swing. I love the way he approaches the game, and the way he takes his at-bats are second to none,” Casas said “The stats speak for themselves. He’s one of the best hitters of the 2010s, and that’s when I was growing up watching baseball, and being a left-handed first baseman, Joey Votto’s not a bad guy to emulate.
“I don’t really try to copy everything he does, but the other day I hit a home run in the sim game, and looking back on it, I was like, ‘Wow, I actually do look like Joey Votto.’ So, yeah, growing up I really did like watching him play.
“The choke up on the bat and two-strike approach, it was just something that I watched him do, and I tried it out for myself and I liked the results I was getting. I liked the way I felt in the box. I liked the way I would compete when I did formulate a good two-strike approach. I’m looking to keep that [approach], because I’m feeling really comfortable now.” (Browne - mlb.com - 9/4/2020)
2020: The cancellation of the minor league season led the Red Sox to invite Casas to their alternate training site, giving him an opportunity to face Triple-A and big league pitchers and to pick the brains of hitters with similar experience levels.
The 6-foot-4, 250-pound, lefthanded hitter proved a sponge.
“He’s mature beyond his years and has physical ability and strength that continue to grow and develop,” Red Sox farm director Brian Abraham said. “The work ethic, the desire, the passion for the game, the willingness to improve is there. The sky is the limit for him.”
Casas grew up emulating Joey Votto, and has always prided himself on having a sound overall approach at the plate.
At the alternate site he developed a more aggressive approach early in counts.
Coupled with the elimination of a leg kick that allowed him to get to pitches on the inner half of the plate, Casas showed an improved ability to drive the ball to right-center even as he faced more advanced opponents.
“Now, with zero and one strikes, I try to just not take big swings, but not feel like I got cheated on any swings I take up there,” Casas said. “And then when it comes to two strikes, just battle and put together a good at-bat.” (Alex Speier - BA - March,2021)
Spring training 2021: Triston knows that being the No. 1 prospect for a team like the Red Sox develops buzz and expectations. But he’s too locked in on his craft to think about external factors such as how quickly he will climb the Minor League ladder.
“I’ve always thought of expectations as limitations. I don’t like to put any expectations on the season or my performance,” Casas said. “In baseball, it could be anybody’s game, anybody’s day, so I’m just going to go out there and do my best and let the chips fall where they may. So I don’t have an idea where I could land level-wise. I’m just going to go out there and try to play hard every day and see where it gets me.”
Casas has already made an impression on Red Sox manager Alex Cora. “Like I said, he is always in balance, knows what he wants to do. For such a young guy, his work ethic not only in the cage but on the field is amazing. And he kept talking about one of his at-bats, what he was looking for or what he did or didn’t do. The good ones, they do that. So it’s been fun to watch him perform. You can see all the things people have been talking about with this kid. He’s a good hitter.” (Browne -mlb.com - 3/16/2021)
Triston Casas is the long-term answer at first base for the Red Sox, and they have high expectations for him this season, when he’ll get his first shot as their regular first baseman. A first-round pick in the 2018 MLB Draft, Casas slashed .269/.374/.485 with 46 home runs and 181 RBIs in more than 1,200 plate appearances over his first four minor-league seasons. He works the count, draws walks and profiles to eventually be a 20- to 25-home run hitter. He’s also an above-average defender with plus range. He turned 23 years old in January and appears to be major-league-ready.
Red Sox chief baseball officer Chaim Bloom: “Triston does everything with a purpose from the moment he walks in the door — and then he carries that work into the game with a mature at-bat every time. He’s still learning the league but he knows the strike zone and he knows who he is.” (Bowden-Mar 14, 2023-TheAthletic)
Triston really impresses scouts with his athletic ability at first base even with his 6-foot-5, 245-pound frame. A former third baseman, Casas has a strong arm, soft hands and solid footwork at first base, where his size makes him an inviting target. He has a 55 grade for his defense.
Casas is primarily used at first base, where he is a plus 60 grade defender with a solid-average 50 grade arm. At 6-foot-4 and nearly 240 pounds, he presents a big target.
Just as he's more than a one-dimensional hitter, Casas also offers value beyond the batter's box. While he's limited to first base, he's a solid defender with soft hands and a strong arm that produced low-90s fastballs when he pitched as an amateur. The only real knock on his game is his lack of speed, though he moves well for his size, and he also earns praise for his makeup and competitive nature. (Spring 2022)
Casas moves well for his size, but he is huge and will slow down as he fills out, so he'll be limited to first base. He still can be an asset defensively, however, because he has soft hands, presents a huge target and has a strong arm that produced low-90s fastballs when he pitched as an amateur. He draws praise for his makeup as well and earned respect at the alternate training site when he was drilled by a Tanner Houck pitch, declined to take first base and then crushed a home run. (Spring 2021)
Trison is uncommonly mature, showing both an interest in feedback while also having the self-understanding to filter what works for him. He has worked out with big leaguers in South Florida for years, something that helped him remain unfazed against older competition. (Spring, 2021)
Casas is a big hunk of a guy, but he moves around surprisingly well at 3rd base. But he more likely ends up at first base, where his surprising athleticism and large wingspan could make him stand out. (Spring, 2019)
- More than a few evaluators see a Gold Glove in Casas' future, at first base.
- Triston is not speedy, and only a 30 grade runner.
July 2018: Shortly after signing with the Red Sox, Casas suffered a torn ligament in his thumb while making a diving play in the field; the subsequent surgery ended his pro debut, but he was back on the field by instructional league.
March 6, 2021: Casas was sent to Boston to get tests on a non-baseball medical situation.
Casas is back in Fort Myers and going through the COVID-19 intake process, with the hope of getting back on the field in the coming days.
Considered by many to be the most intriguing bat in the Red Sox’s system, Casas could rejoin the team “over the course of the week,” according to Cora.
“Things are trending in the right direction and we’re comfortable with where this is going,” Cora added.
April 5-July 26, 2022: Triston was on the IL with a sprained right ankle.
- Nov. 2022: Casas, playing for the Licey Tigers of the Dominican League, was shut down after three games due to knee soreness. An MRI and an examination in Boston revealed no structural damage to the knee.